Synonyms: indie publishing
A business model where the author retains complete control over the business decisions surrounding publication of their book.
Independent publishing is not the same as self-publishing. Whereas self-publishing always involves the author assuming the full financial risk of their publishing venture, independent publishing can involve alternate funding schemes such as crowdfunding, patronage, subscription, or donation.
The focus in independent publishing is not on the source of funding, but on the creative and business independence retained by the author.
An author who is publishing independently is an independent author (or indie author).